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What Is Grinding and Its Working Principle and Type?

The principle of grinding precision machining: Grinding is an abrasive precision machining method that uses a lapping tool and abrasive to grind off a thin layer of metal from the surface of the workpiece based on fine machining.

Define grinding:
Grinding is a unit operation that reduces solid matter into smaller particles.

Define grinding process:
Grinding is a processing method that uses abrasives to remove material. The process of removing material with abrasives is one of the earliest production techniques used by humans.

Grinding process is a micro-processing method. Grinding uses a grinding tools and abrasive (a free abrasive) to generate relative movement between the processed surface of the workpiece and the grinding tool, and apply pressure to remove it from the workpiece. Tiny surface raised layer to reduce surface roughness and improve dimensional accuracy, geometric accuracy, etc. Grinding process can be used in various metal and non-metal materials. The processed surface shapes include flat surfaces, inner and outer cylindrical and conical surfaces, convex and concave spherical surfaces, threads, tooth surfaces, and other profiles. In-mold manufacturing, especially precision die-casting molds, plastic molds, and automobile panel molds that require high product appearance quality are widely used.

What Is the Working Principle of Grinding Machines?

  1. During the grinding process, the grinding surface of the grinder tool is evenly coated with abrasive. If the material hardness of the grinding tool is lower than that of the workpiece, when the grinding tool and the workpiece move relative to each other under pressure, the abrasive has sharp edges and corners. Some of the particles with high hardness will be pressed into the surface of the lap to produce cutting action (plastic deformation), and some will roll or slide between the grinding tool and the surface of the workpiece to produce slippage (elastic deformation). These particles, like countless cutting blades, produce a small amount of cutting action on the surface of the workpiece, and evenly cut a thin layer of metal from the surface of the workpiece. At the same time, under the action of the grinding pressure, the passivated abrasive particles squeeze the peak points of the processed surface to produce micro-extrusion plastic deformation on the processed surface, so that the workpiece gradually obtains high dimensional accuracy and low surface roughness.
  2. When using abrasives such as chromium oxide and stearic acid, the abrasive and the processed surface of the workpiece have a chemical effect during the grinding process, resulting in a very thin oxide film, which is easily worn off. The grinding process is the process of continuous generation and erasing of oxide film, so many cycles of repetition reduce the roughness of the processed surface.

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